Dynamic Planet Notes

Types of Volcanos-
1) Stratovolcano- also known as composite, these volcanos are the most common. They are made from layers of both lava and pyroclastic material. They have partially steep sides .
2) Shield Volcanos- This type of volcano has shallow, sloping sides. It is formed by many, many layers of non-explosive eruption's lava.
3) Cinder Cone Volcanos- Formed from layers of pyroclastic material from previous eruptions. These volcanoes are found in clusters because pyroclastic material doesn't travel very far. These volcanos have very steep sides and are very tall. They only erupt for a short amount of time.

Types of Pyroclastic Material
  • Volcanic Bombs- large blobs of magma that explode into the air, but harden into rock bombs and fall from the sky
  • Volcanic Blocks- pieces of solid rock that explode from a volcano
  • Volcanic Ash- gases from stiff magma expand rapidly and the gas bubbles explode into tiny, glasslike slivers
  • Lapilli- pebble-like bits of magma that rise into the air but harden before they hit the air

Types of Lava
  • Pillow lava- lava formed when a volcano erupts underwater in the oceans from a rift zone, very viscous
  • Pahoehoe- lava with a very glassy surface and rounded wrinkles, flows slowly
  • Aa- forms a brittle crust on the surface and underneath the lava continues to flow, very viscous
  • Blocky- cool, stiff lava that does not travel far from its erupting vent, forms jumbled heaps of sharp-edged chunks

Volcano's Climatic Affects
Volcano's ash from their pyroclastic flows gets trapped in the atmosphere and blocks direct sunlight from reaching the earth's surface. This causes a cooler climate in regions around the erupting volcano. Volcanos also cause spectacular sunsets because the ash in the atmosphere scatter the light waves so that only longer light waves can be seen, or red waves, making a sunset ruby red and prettier.